5 years ago

Phasic inhibition as a mechanism for generation of rapid respiratory rhythms [Neuroscience]

Phasic inhibition as a mechanism for generation of rapid respiratory rhythms [Neuroscience]
Jared M. Cregg, Lynn T. Landmesser, Thomas E. Dick, Jerry Silver, Kevin A. Chu

Central neural networks operate continuously throughout life to control respiration, yet mechanisms regulating ventilatory frequency are poorly understood. Inspiration is generated by the pre-Bötzinger complex of the ventrolateral medulla, where it is thought that excitation increases inspiratory frequency and inhibition causes apnea. To test this model, we used an in vitro optogenetic approach to stimulate select populations of hindbrain neurons and characterize how they modulate frequency. Unexpectedly, we found that inhibition was required for increases in frequency caused by stimulation of Phox2b-lineage, putative CO2-chemosensitive neurons. As a mechanistic explanation for inhibition-dependent increases in frequency, we found that phasic stimulation of inhibitory neurons can increase inspiratory frequency via postinhibitory rebound. We present evidence that Phox2b-mediated increases in frequency are caused by rebound excitation following an inhibitory synaptic volley relayed by expiration. Thus, although it is widely thought that inhibition between inspiration and expiration simply prevents activity in the antagonistic phase, we instead propose a model whereby inhibitory coupling via postinhibitory rebound excitation actually generates fast modes of inspiration.

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.