5 years ago

Cytotoxicity, Hemolytic Toxicity, and Mechanism of Action of Pulsatilla Saponin D and Its Synthetic Derivatives

Cytotoxicity, Hemolytic Toxicity, and Mechanism of Action of Pulsatilla Saponin D and Its Synthetic Derivatives
Peiling Hsu, Zhong Chen, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Susan L. Morris-Natschke, Shilin Yang, Xiaohang Tong, Wei Liu, Li Han, Huaqing Duan
The strong hemolytic toxicity of pulsatilla saponin D (1, HD50 6.3 μM) has hampered its clinical development as an injectable anticancer agent. To combat this challenge, 17 new derivatives of 1 with ring C, C-28, or C-3 modifications were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against several selected human tumor lines, as well as for hemolytic toxicity against rabbit erythrocytes. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) and structure–toxicity relationship (STR) correlations were also elucidated. Compared to the lead compound 1, the hemolytic activity of all 17 derivatives dropped dramatically. Notably, compound 14 exhibited significant cytotoxicity toward A549 human lung cancer cells (IC50 2.8 μM) in a dose-dependent manner without hemolytic toxicity (HD50 > 500 μM). Molecular studies indicated that 14 induced typical G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells, and Western blot assays suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways were activated by 14. Collectively, compound 14 may merit further development as a potential anti-lung cancer agent.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00578

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00578

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