Morphologic and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of knee articular cartilage for the assessment of post‐traumatic osteoarthritis
Orthopedic trauma, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption, is a common source of osteoarthritis in the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non‐invasive multi‐planar imaging modality commonly used to evaluate hard and soft tissues of diarthrodial joints following traumatic injury. The contrast provided by generated images enables the evaluation of bone marrow lesions as well as delamination and degeneration of articular cartilage. We will provide background information about MRI signal generation and decay (T1 and T2 values), the utility of morphologic MRI, and the quantitative MRI techniques of T1ρ, T2, and T2* mapping, to evaluate subjects with traumatic knee injuries, such as ACL rupture. Additionally, we will provide information regarding the dGEMRIC, sodium, and gagCEST imaging techniques. Finally, the description and utility of newer post hoc analysis techniques, such as texture analysis, will be given. Continued development and refinement of these advanced MRI techniques will facilitate their clinical translation. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:412–423, 2017.