3 years ago

Selective Covalent Protein Modification by 4-Halopyridines through Catalysis

Selective Covalent Protein Modification by 4-Halopyridines through Catalysis
Walter Fast, Joyce A. V. Er, Jake C. Swartzel, Alfred Tuley, Christopher L. Schardon
We have investigated 4-halopyridines as selective, tunable, and switchable covalent protein modifiers for use in the development of chemical probes. Nonenzymatic reactivity of 4-chloropyridine with amino acids and thiols was ranked with respect to common covalent protein-modifying reagents and found to have reactivity similar to that of acrylamide, but could be switched to a reactivity similar to that of iodoacetamide upon stabilization of the positively charged pyridinium. Diverse, fragment-sized 4-halopyridines inactivated human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) through covalent modification of the active site cysteine, acting as quiescent affinity labels that required off-pathway catalysis through stabilization of the protonated pyridinium by a neighboring aspartate residue. A series of 2-fluoromethyl-substituted 4-chloropyridines demonstrated that the pKa and kinact/KI values could be predictably varied over several orders of magnitude. Covalent labeling of proteins in an Escherichia coli lysate was shown to require folded proteins, indicating that alternative proteins can be targeted, and modification is likely to be catalysisdependent. 4-Halopyridines, and quiescent affinity labels in general, represent an attractive strategy to develop reagents with switchable electrophilicity as selective covalent protein modifiers. Covalent warheads that become more electrophilic upon protein binding represent a novel strategy in the design of selective covalent probes. Herein, we describe the nonenzymatic, enzymatic, and proteomic reactivity of 4-halopyridines as covalent protein modifiers with switchable electrophilicity that is enhanced upon binding to targeted proteins, including human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201700104

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