Preoperative diagnosis and prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma: Radiomics analysis based on multi-modal ultrasound images
This study aims to establish a radiomics analysis system for the diagnosis and clinical behaviour prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on multi-parametric ultrasound imaging.
A total of 177 patients with focal liver lesions (FLLs) were included in the study. Every patient underwent multi-modal ultrasound examination, including B-mode ultrasound (BMUS), shear wave elastography (SWE), and shear wave viscosity (SWV) imaging. The radiomics analysis system was built on sparse representation theory (SRT) and support vector machine (SVM) for asymmetric data. Through the sparse regulation from the SRT, the proposed radiomics system can effectively avoid over-fitting issues that occur in regular radiomics analysis. The purpose of the proposed system includes differential diagnosis between benign and malignant FLLs, pathologic diagnosis of HCC, and clinical prognostic prediction. Three biomarkers, including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), antigen Ki-67 (Ki-67) and microvascular invasion (MVI), were included and analysed. We calculated the accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SENS), specificity (SPEC) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of the radiomics models.
A total of 2560 features were extracted from the multi-modal ultrasound images for each patient. Five radiomics models were built, and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to evaluate the models. In LOOCV, the AUC was 0.94 for benign and malignant classification (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88 to 0.98), 0.97 for malignant subtyping (95% CI: 0.93 to 0.99), 0.97 for PD-1 prediction (95% CI: 0.89 to 0.98), 0.94 for Ki-67 prediction (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.97), and 0.98 for MVI prediction (95% CI: 0.93 to 0.99). The performance of each model improved when the viscosity modality was included.
Radiomics analysis based on multi-modal ultrasound images could aid in comprehensive liver tumor evaluations, including diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and clinical prognosis.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12885-018-5003-4