Long-term outcomes in pediatric appendiceal carcinoids: Turkey experience
The tendency of non-operative management of appendicitis let us explore the natural history of appendiceal carcinoids, compare them with appendicitis patients, and determine the possibility of deciding the extent of the surgery and post-operative follow-up on behalf of the intraoperative findings. A retrospective review was performed of patients with appendicitis between 2009 and 2017. Of 2781 patients, 10 (0.36%) were diagnosed with appendiceal carcinoids. Sixty percent were female with an average age of 13.10 ± 1.73. The mean tumor size was 0.97 ± 0.34 cm with 70% located at the tip. Majority had an insular pattern (n = 9), six had subserosal fat tissue invasion, one had extension to mesoappendix, one had vascular invasion, and two had lymphatic invasion. The average mitotic index was 3.20 ± 1.40/50HPF, and Ki 67 activity was 3 ± 1.7%. The mean follow-up period was 66.40 ± 25.92 months. Patients were further evaluated with ultrasonography (n = 10), CT (n = 3), and MRI (n = 10). Serum markers including chromogranin (n = 9), NSE (n = 6), and 5-HIAA (n = 6) were normal. None required further treatment and had any symptoms of carcinoid syndromes or recurrences post-operatively.
Conclusion: Other than appendectomy, no additional surgery or follow-up is required in appendiceal carcinoids less than 1.5 cm in size, regardless of the lymphoid or vascular invasion.
What is Known:
• The treatment of patients with a 1–2-cm tumor is not clear in both the pediatric and adult populations, and additional resection is needed.
• Patients are monitored post-operatively with radiological and/or biochemical testing.
What is New:
• Appendectomy is curative for tumors less than 2 cm.
• No additional surgery or follow-up is required in appendiceal carcinoids less than 1.5 cm in size regardless of the lymphoid or vascular invasion.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00431-018-3258-z