Molecular diagnostics improves diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergy and food allergy with economic optimization and cost saving
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018
Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Author(s): S. Peveri, S. Pattini, M.T. Costantino, C. Incorvaia, M. Montagni, C. Roncallo, D. Villalta, E. Savi
Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) allows to precisely identify the sensitization to specific molecules of a given allergenic source, resulting in an important improvement in clinical management, particularly of polysensitized subjects. This will end in the correct prescription of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for respiratory allergy and in adequate avoidance diets or prescription of self-injectable adrenaline in food allergy.
The aim of this multicenter, real life study is to evaluate the percentage change of the diagnostic-therapeutic choice in polysensitized patients with respiratory allergy and in patients with food allergy, after using CRD compared to a first level diagnosis, along with an economic analysis of the patient's overall management according to the two different approaches.
An overall number of 462 polysensitized patients, as suggested by skin prick tests (SPT), and with clinical symptoms related to a respiratory (275 pts) or food (187 pts) allergy, were recruited. All patients underwent CRD for specific IgE against food or inhalant recombinant molecules, which were chosen according to medical history and positivity to SPT. The first diagnostic-therapeutic hypothesis, based only on medical history and SPT, was recorded for each patient while the final diagnostic-therapeutic choice was based on the results from CRD. The rate of change of the diagnostic-therapeutic choice from the first hypothesis to the final choice was statistically evaluated. The economic impact of CRD on the overall management of the allergic patients was analyzed to evaluate whether the increase in the diagnostic costs would be compensated and eventually exceeded by savings coming from the improved diagnostic-therapeutic appropriateness.
An approximate 50% change (k index 0.54) in the prescription of AIT for respiratory allergy as well as a change in the prescription of self-injectable adrenaline (k index 0.56) was measured; an overall saving of financial resources along with a higher diagnostic-therapeutic appropriateness was also detected.
There is moderate agreement concerning prescription of AIT and self-injectable adrenaline before and after performing CRD: this highlights the usefulness of CRD, at least in polysensitized patients, in indicating the risk assessment and therefore the correct therapy of respiratory and food allergy, which results in a cost-saving approach.