3 years ago

Psychopathie et risque de récidive sexuelle : analyse critique de la littérature scientifique

Emmanuelle Soulet, Mathieu Garcia, Emma Rouchy, Denis Delannoy, Florent Cochez, Thierry Pham, Grégory Michel

Publication date: November 2018

Source: Annales Médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique, Volume 176, Issue 9

Author(s): Emmanuelle Soulet, Mathieu Garcia, Emma Rouchy, Denis Delannoy, Florent Cochez, Thierry Pham, Grégory Michel

Résumé

Le présent article recense les études réalisées entre 1992 et 2017 ayant pour objet d’étude la relation entre psychopathie et risque de récidive sexuelle. Si la majorité des recherches semble faire état d’une association positive entre la personnalité psychopathique et le risque de récidive, la nature de cette relation est beaucoup plus complexe en ce qui concerne les recours à l’acte sexuel répétés. Aussi avons-nous procédé à un examen approfondi des études déjà réalisées, ceci afin de clarifier l’état actuel des connaissances relatives à cette relation. Ainsi, à l’aide de différents mots-clés (« psychopathy » OR « psychopathic traits » OR « psychopathic personality » OR « PCL-R » AND « sexual recidivism » OR « persistent sexual offenders ») et à partir de plusieurs bases de données bibliographiques (PubMed, Science Direct et PsycInfo), nous avons retenu 24 études effectuées sur cette thématique. Les résultats confirment que la psychopathie apparaît comme un facteur de risque du récidivisme sexuel important mais seulement pour une partie des études. En effet, certaines ont également souligné la présence d’autres facteurs de risque souvent trop peu considérés tels que la déviance sexuelle, le mésusage d’alcool, l’échec au traitement, ou encore les dysfonctionnements cérébraux. Notons également une diversité des méthodologies employées pouvant participer à l’explication des résultats contrastés. En conclusion, la personnalité psychopathique est importante à prendre en compte dans la prévention du risque de récidive sexuelle, mais elle n’est pas suffisante pour constituer un indice prédicteur unique. Dans cette perspective, nous discuterons des liens entre psychopathie et facteurs associés au risque de récidive sexuelle tant d’un point thérapeutique que préventif.

Abstract
Objectives

For the past twenty years, sexual violence is a major subject in the legal and criminological fields. Moreover, this phenomenon is becoming a major public health issue and becomes an important topic in termes of prevention. The main objective of this article is to clarify the current state of the litterature about the relationship between the psychopathy and the risk of sexual recidivism. Indeed, the relationship between both of them are debated among the studies right now. So, it's in this context that we wanted to expose the international studies on this topic and to discuss it.

Methods

A review of literature was conducted from 1992 to 2017 from three databases: ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and PubMed. The selection process of the articles was carried out from the methodological recommendations of the « Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses » grid (PRISMA). Thus, 24 articles identifying the relationship between psychopathy and risk of sexual recidivism, or psychopathy as a predictor of sexual recidivism were selected. These 24 articles include fields studies and meta-analyzes. The diversity of the methodologies used didn’t allow the realization of meta-analysis of the results of the studies.

Results

The results show that psychopathy appears as a risk factor for sexual recidivism or in relationship with risk of sexual recidivism or sexual recidivism only for some of the studies. The other part of them nuance these results or show an absence of relationship between psychopathy and sexual recidivism. This can be explained by the presence of other risk factors, but especially by the diversity of the methodologies used by the studies. Effectively, we can observe that researches identified in this article include different populations, that the environment of people recruted is not the same, or that different population comparisons were realised between studies. We also observe that the nature of the studies isn’t the same: some of them are longitudinal studies, others retrospective studies. This doesn’t allow us to make the same conclusions.

Conclusions

To conclude, psychopathic personality seems important to take into account in the prevention of the risk of sexual recidivism, but doesn’t appear sufficient. Indeed, it's important to consider other life factors may represent risk factors such individual characteristics, environment of the people or the nature of offenses, for example. In this perspective, the review of the literature discussed in this article aims to provide clinicians with elements of thought in the prevention of sexual recidivism. Moreover, this review aims to provide additional knowledge in psychocriminology for clinical research.

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