3 years ago

Decay of dark solitons and a non-equilibrium dynamical phase transition.

Minyong Guo, Esko Keski-vakkuri, Hong Liu, Yu Tian, Hongbao Zhang

Dark solitons play important roles in non-equilibrium dynamics of a superfluid. We discuss temperature dependence of the decay of a dark soliton in two classes of theories, the dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation and holographic superfluids. In both classes of theories we find there exists a critical temperature $T_d$ which separates the decay of a dark soliton into two distinct regimes, by snake instabilities below $T_d$, while by self-acceleration above $T_d$. This further implies the existence of a dynamical phase transition for a non-equilibrium superfluid system with an initial density of dark solitons: above $T_d$ such a system will relax to equilibrium by producing sound waves, while below $T_d$ it will go through an intermediate phase with a finite density of vortex-antivortex pairs. In particular, our results predict that as $T_d$ is approached from below, the density of vortex pairs scales as $(T_d - T)^\gamma$ with some critical exponent $\gamma$.

Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1810.11424

DOI: arXiv:1810.11424v2

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