Proteostasis in the Hedgehog signaling pathway
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018
Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Author(s): Aimin Liu
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is crucial for the development of vertebrate and invertebrate animals alike. Hh ligand binds its receptor Patched (Ptc), allowing the activation of the obligate signal transducer Smoothened (Smo). The levels and localizations of both Ptc and Smo are regulated by ubiquitination, and Smo is under additional regulation by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. Downstream of Smo, the Ci/Gli family of transcription factors regulates the transcriptional responses to Hh. Phosphorylation, ubiquitination and SUMOylation are important for the stability and localization of Ci/Gli proteins and Hh signaling output. Finally, Suppressor of Fused directly regulates Ci/Gli proteins and itself is under proteolytic regulation that is critical for normal Hh signaling.