3 years ago

Long-term Excretion of Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents: Linear versus Macrocyclic Agents in an Experimental Rat Model.

Gregor Jost, Thomas Frenzel, Janina Boyken, Jessica Lohrke, Volker Nischwitz, Hubertus Pietsch
Purpose To investigate the long-term course of MRI signal intensity (SI) changes and the presence of gadolinium in the rat brain during a 1-year period after multiple administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Materials and Methods Rats received a linear GBCA (gadodiamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine), a macrocyclic GBCA (gadobutrol, gadoterate meglumine, gadoteridol), or saline. Animals received eight injections over 2 weeks (1.8 mmol/kg per injection). Brain MRI and gadolinium measurements were performed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS 5, 26, and 52 weeks after administration. Results Animals that received linear GBCAs showed higher deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN)-to-brainstem SI ratios compared with the saline group (P < .001 at all time points). After 1 year, mean gadolinium concentrations in the cerebellum were 3.38 nmol/g (gadodiamide), 2.13 nmol/g (gadopentetate dimeglumine), and 1.91 nmol/g (gadobenate dimeglumine). For linear agents, laser ablation ICP-MS revealed gadolinium depositions in the cerebellar nuclei. For macrocyclic GBCAs, the DCN-to-brainstem SI ratios did not significantly differ from those in the saline group (P > .42) and the cerebellar gadolinium concentrations decreased between weeks 5 and 52, reaching 0.08 nmol/g (gadobutrol), 0.04 nmol/g (gadoterate meglumine), and 0.07 nmol/g (gadoteridol). The respective laser ablation ICP-MS analysis showed no gadolinium depositions. Conclusion Increased signal intensity in the deep cerebellar nuclei of rats persists for at least 1 year after administration of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), in line with persistent brain gadolinium concentrations with no elimination after the initial 5-week period. The animals that received macrocyclic GBCAs showed an ongoing elimination of gadolinium from the brain during the entire observation period. © RSNA, 2018.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018180135

DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2018180135

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