Hydrothermal evolution and ore genesis of the Zhaiping Ag-Pb-Zn deposit in Fujian Province of Southeast China: Evidence from stable isotopes (H, O, C, S) and fluid inclusions
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018
Source: Ore Geology Reviews
Author(s): Ying Ma, Shao-Yong Jiang, Run-Sheng Chen, Xue-Xie Li, Lüyun Zhu, Suo-Fei Xiong
The Zhaiping Ag-Pb-Zn deposit (204 t Ag, average grade: 221.8 g/t) is located in the coastal area of the Cathaysia Block, Southeast China. Vein-type Ag-Pb-Zn orebodies are mainly hosted in the early Cretaceous volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, and structurally controlled by a group of NW-trending extensional faults. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration is well developed on both sides of the veins, dominated by silicic, phyllic, propylitic, and carbonate alteration. Mineralization can be divided into three stages: (1) the pre-ore quartz-pyrite stage, (2) syn-ore quartz-Ag-base metal stage, and (3) post-ore quartz-calcite stage. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion assemblages in quartz, fluorite, sphalerite, and calcite from various hydrothermal stages reveal that from the pre-ore, syn-ore to post-ore stages, the homogenization temperatures range from 365 to 319 °C, from 317 to 222 °C, and from 233 to 172 °C, respectively. Fluid salinities range from 1.7 to 10.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The microthermometric data indicate that the fluid cooling and fluid-rock interaction are two important mechanisms for ore precipitation. The δ34SV-CDT values of sulfide minerals (pyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite and tetrahedrite) range from -1.9 to 6.2 ‰, and mostly between 1.0 and 4.5 ‰, consistent with a deep-seated magmatic sulfur source. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of quartz indicate a primarily magmatic origin for the ore-forming fluids, and the proportion of meteoric water increased during the ore-forming processes. Post-ore stage calcite has δ13CV-PDB values of -2.8 to -0.8 ‰ and δ18OV-SMOW values of 4.2 to 6.4 ‰, corresponding to calculated values of fluids of -3.2 to -1.1 ‰, and -4.9 to -2.8 ‰, respectively. The carbon isotopes indicate a magmatic source for carbon but the oxygen isotopes indicate a significant contribution of meteoric water during calcite precipitation. We therefore proposed that the Zhaiping deposit is a typical mesothermal deposit that formed in an extensional environment related to the early Cretaceous subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate.