3 years ago

Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) methylation in colorectal cancer

Mohammad Amin Kerachian, Matin Kerachian

Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018

Source: Clinica Chimica Acta

Author(s): Mohammad Amin Kerachian, Matin Kerachian

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a group of molecularly heterogeneous diseases characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations. Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are a form of retrotransposable element found in many eukaryotic genomes. These LINEs, when active, can mobilize in the cell and steadily cause genomic rearrangement. Active LINE reorganization is a source of endogenous mutagenesis and polymorphism in the cell that brings about individual genomic variation. In normal somatic cells, these elements are heavily methylated and thus mostly suppressed, in turn, preventing their potential for bringing about genomic instability. When LINEs are inadequately controlled, they can play a role in the pathogenesis of several genetic diseases, such as cancer. In tumor cells, LINE hypomethylation can reactivate the mobilization of these elements and is associated with both an advanced stage and a poor prognosis. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge surrounding LINE methylation, its correlation to CRC and its application as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker in colon cancer.

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