Y‐box binding protein‐1 promotes tumorigenesis and progression via the EGFR/AKT pathway in spinal chordoma
Chordomas are rare bone tumors with a poor prognosis and no approved targeted therapy. Y‐box binding protein‐1 (YBX1) promotes tumor growth, invasion and drug resistance. However, the role of YBX1 in chordoma is unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of YBX1 using immunohistochemistry and found that YBX1 was significantly upregulated in thirty‐two chordoma tissues compared to distant normal tissues. Additionally, YBX1 upregulation was associated with surrounding tissue invasion, recurrence and poor prognosis. Biological function studies demonstrated that YBX1 promoted cell proliferation, invasion, accelerated G1/S phase transition and inhibited apoptosis. Further investigations found that YBX1 enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transcription by directly binding to its promoter in chordoma cells. YBX1 regulated protein expression of p‐EGFR, p‐AKT and its downstream target genes that influenced cell apoptosis, cell cycle transition and cell invasion. YBX1 activated the EGFR/AKT pathway in chordoma and YBX1‐induced elevated expression of key molecules in the EGFR/AKT pathway were downregulated by EGFR and AKT pathway inhibitors. These in vitro results were further confirmed by in vivo data. These data showed that YBX1 promoted tumorigenesis and progression in spinal chordoma via the EGFR/AKT pathway. YBX1 might serve as a prognostic and predictive biomarker, as well as a rational therapeutic target, for chordoma.
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Publisher URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cas.13875