Theory of spin magnetic quadrupole moment and temperature-gradient-induced magnetization.
We revisit a quantum-mechanical formula of the spin magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) in periodic crystals. Two previous attempts were inconsistent with each other; one is gauge dependent, and the other is gauge invariant. Here we define the spin MQM by calculating the spin density in a nonuniform system. Our definition is analogous to that of the charge polarization, but the result is gauge invariant and coincides with the latter previous one. We also formulate what we call gravitomagnetoelectric (gravito-ME) effect, in which the magnetization is induced by a temperature gradient. Although the Kubo formula for the gravito-ME effect provides an unphysical divergence at zero temperature, we prove that the correct susceptibility is obtained by subtracting the spin MQM from the Kubo formula. It vanishes at zero temperature and is related to the ME susceptibility by the Mott relation. We explicitly calculate the gravito-ME susceptibility in a Rashba ferromagnet and show its experimetal feasibility.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.05596