3 years ago

Trastornos psiquiátricos secundarios a enfermedades neurometabólicas

Paula M. Herrera, Alberto Vélez Van Meerbeke, Olivier Bonnot

Publication date: October–December 2018

Source: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, Volume 47, Issue 4

Author(s): Paula M. Herrera, Alberto Vélez Van Meerbeke, Olivier Bonnot

Resumen

Hay algunas enfermedades secundarias a errores innatos del metabolismo que se asocian a trastornos psiquiátricos o síntomas neurológicos menores. La existencia de algunos pacientes con signos únicamente psiquiátricos representa un desafío diagnóstico y terapéutico. El objetivo del presente artículo es describir 6 enfermedades neurometabólicas tratables que se presentan con síntomas psiquiátricos que camuflan su origen orgánico, con el propósito de que se las tome en cuenta en la consulta psiquiátrica. Se describen los trastornos del metabolismo de la homocisteína y del ciclo de la urea, la enfermedad de Wilson, la enfermedad de Niemann-Pick tipo C, la porfiria aguda y la xantomatosis cerebrotendinosa. El análisis de la literatura lleva a proponer una lista de síntomas psiquiátricos asociados con dichas afecciones, que abarcan desde los cambios insidiosos del afecto y el curso del pensamiento hasta síntomas atípicos, como alucinaciones visuales, efectos paradójicos de los medicamentos antipsicóticos y trastornos del comportamiento de niños y adolescentes que conllevan degradación de la autonomía. Asimismo se listan los signos neurológicos más frecuentemente relacionados, como las alteraciones del estado de conciencia, los trastornos de la conducta motora y el equilibro, la catatonia o el déficit cognitivo progresivo. Se hace hincapié en la importancia de considerar la resistencia al tratamiento antipsicótico como una señal importante para sospechar organicidad y la mejoría significativa de la alteración psiquiátrica cuando se instaura un tratamiento eficaz y precoz.

Abstract

Some diseases secondary to inborn errors of metabolism are associated with psychiatric disorders or minor neurological symptoms. The existence of some cases with exclusively psychiatric symptoms represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this article is to describe seven treatable neurometabolic disorders that should be taken into account in the psychiatric consultation as they manifest with psychiatric symptoms that mask the organic origin of the disorder. Homocysteine metabolism and urea cycle disorders, Wilson's disease, Niemann-Pick disease Type C, acute porphyria and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis are described. Following an analysis of the literature, a list of psychiatric symptoms associated with these disorders are proposed, ranging from insidious changes in affective state and thought to atypical symptoms such as visual hallucinations, as well as paradoxical effects of antipsychotics or behavioural disorders in children and adolescents associated with loss of autonomy. The most frequently associated neurological signs, such as alterations in the state of consciousness, motor behaviour and balance disorders, catatonia or progressive cognitive deficit are also listed. Emphasis is placed on the importance of considering resistance to antipsychotic treatment as a warning sign to suspect organicity, as well as the significant improvement in psychiatric impairment when effective and early treatment is established.

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