3 years ago

Relación entre la ausencia de soporte social adecuado durante el embarazo y el bajo peso al nacer

Carol Viviana Paredes Mondragón, Hoover Molano Dorado, Sandra Yamile Martínez Gómez, Roberth Alirio Ortiz Martínez, Stephany Arias Linthon, Andrés Camilo López Benavides

Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017

Source: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría

Author(s): Carol Viviana Paredes Mondragón, Hoover Molano Dorado, Sandra Yamile Martínez Gómez, Roberth Alirio Ortiz Martínez, Stephany Arias Linthon, Andrés Camilo López Benavides

Resumen
Introducción

El bajo peso al nacer se define cuando el neonato pesa menos de 2.500 g; sus orígenes son multifactoriales y sus prevalencias mundial y nacional son del 4,8 y el 9% respectivamente. Se destaca la falta de apoyo social como uno de los factores de riesgo que puede tener gran relación con el bajo peso al nacer.

Objetivo

Determinar la relación entre la ausencia de apoyo social durante el embarazo y el bajo peso al nacer.

Métodos

Estudio de casos y controles en una población de 420 madres seleccionadas en un hospital de alta complejidad durante el periodo de noviembre 2015 a julio 2017. Se aplicó a estas madres un instrumento que incluía variables sociodemográficas y escalas validadas que evalúan apoyo social y estrategias de afrontamiento. Para el análisis de los datos, se desarrollaron modelos de regresión logística, psicológico, biológico y social, con las variables antecedente de vaginosis, vivir en área rural, nuliparidad y apoyo social no adecuado, que se identificaron como las que tienen mayor relación con el bajo peso al nacer.

Resultados

En el modelo final de regresión logística, se encontró que la ausencia de apoyo social aumenta la oportunidad de bajo peso al nacer en 3,59 veces (OR = 4,59; IC95%, 2,27-9,27; p<0,01). Otra variable significativa es la nuliparidad.

Conclusiones

Los hallazgos respaldan la hipótesis de que la ausencia de apoyo social adecuado durante la gestación está relacionada con el bajo peso al nacer.

Abstract
Introduction

Low birth weight is defined as the infant weighing less than 2500 grams; its origins are multifactorial and its prevalence at the global and national levels is between 4.8% and 9% respectively. Lack of social support has been emphasised as one of the risk factors that may have a high correlation with the occurrence of low birth weight.

Objective

To determine the relationship between the absence of social support during pregnancy and low birth weight.

Methods

Case-control study in a population of 420 selected mothers in a tertiary hospital from November 2015 to July 2017. In these mothers, an instrument was applied that included sociodemographic variables and validated scales that evaluate social support and coping strategies. For the data analysis, logistic, psychological, biological and social regression models were developed, with variables for a history of vaginosis, living in rural areas, nulliparity, and inadequate social support; which were identified as having the greatest relationship with low birth weight.

Results

In the final logistic regression model we found that the absence of social support increases the chance of low birth weight by 3.59 fold (OR=4.59; 95%CI, 2.27-9.27; P<.01). Another significant variable was nulliparity.

Conclusions

The findings support the hypothesis that the absence of adequate social support during gestation is related to low birth weight.

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