3 years ago

Impacts of fossil anisotropy on the electric and permeability anisotropy of highly fossiliferous limestone: a case study

Bassem S. Nabawy

Abstract

The Middle Eocene Lutetian Samalut formation is among the best examples of anisotropic fossiliferous rocks in Egypt, where the effect of the anisotropic Nummulite Gizehensis fossils on the petrophysical behavior can be traced. The Samalut formation has been sampled and studied at Wadi Feiran in SW Sinai. Petrographically, it is composed of two microfacies; Nummulitic packstone and Fusulinid mudstone. Tight cementation by micro to pseudosparite, aggrading neomorphism and compaction with increasing load pressure are the most important porosity-reducing factors. The anisotropy of the fossil content (λF), due to shape and orientation, and its effect on the petrophysical properties were assigned by measuring the lengths of the longest and shortest axes. Petrophysically, both microfacies are characterized by low porosity values (1.47 ≤  \({\emptyset _{{\text{He}}}}\)  ≤ 5.29%). The formation resistivity factor (F) and permeability (k) were measured in the horizontal and vertical directions (parallel and perpendicular to the bedding plane, respectively). The studied samples are characterized by high to very high formation resistivity factor (190 ≤ F ≤ 8938) and relatively very low permeability (0.012 ≤ k ≤ 0.110 md). The studied samples are characterized by fair to medium electric anisotropy ‘λE’, which is attributed to a relatively medium to fair degree of electric foliation. It has been shown that, the fossil shape anisotropy and orientation ‘λF’ (1.5 ≤ λF ≤ 3.5) is the main contributor for the electric and permeability anisotropy that corrected for the same porosity value (1.61 ≤ λEC ≤ 2.25 and 1.03 ≤ λkC ≤ 2.04; respectively). Foliation of the studied microfacies has been contributed to the orientation of the fossil remains parallel to the bedding plane. The anisotropy degree is relatively greater for the Nummulitic packstone microfacies than that of the Fusulinid mudstone. The present study refers to the possible anisotropic effect of fossil content (due to shape and orientation) on the petrophysical properties of the studied rocks which may be extended to the anisotropy of reservoir rocks on the bedding scale.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11001-017-9335-2

DOI: 10.1007/s11001-017-9335-2

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