3 years ago

Validation of 3D echocardiographic volume detection of left atrium by human cadaveric casts

Jouni K. Kuusisto, Vesa M. Järvinen, Juha P. Sinisalo



Left atrial volume is a prognostic factor in cardiac pathologies. We aimed to validate left atrial volume detection with 3D and 2D echocardiography (3DE and 2DE) by human cadaveric casts. 3DE facilitates measurement of atrial volume without geometrical assumptions or dependence on imaging angle in contrast to 2DE methods.


For method validation, six water-filled balloons were submerged in a 20-l water tank and their volumes were measured with 3DE. Seven human cadaveric left atrial casts were prepared of silicone and were transformed into ultrasound-permeable casts. Casts were imaged in the same setting, so that 3DE and 2DE of casts represented transthoracic apical view. Left ventricle analysis softwares GE 4D Auto LVQ and TomTec 4D LV-Function were used for 3DE volumetry.


Balloon volumes ranged 37 to 255 ml (mean 126 ml). 3DE resulted in an excellent volumetric agreement with balloon volumes, absolute bias was − 3.7 ml (95% CI -5.9 to − 1.4). Atrial cast volumes were 38 to 94 ml (mean 56.6 ml). 3DE and 2DE volumes were excellently correlated with cast volumes (r = 0.96 to 0.99). Biases were for GE 4D LVQ -0.7 ml (95% CI -6.1 to 4.6), TomTec 4D LV-Function 3.3 ml (− 1.9 to 8.5) and 2DE 2.9 ml (− 4.0 to 9.9). 3DE resulted in lower limits of agreement and showed no volume-related bias in contrast to area-length method.


We conclude that measurement of human cadaveric left atrial cast volumes by 3DE is in excellent agreement with true cast volumes.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12880-018-0282-4

DOI: 10.1186/s12880-018-0282-4

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