Platycodin D inhibits platelet function and thrombus formation through inducing internalization of platelet glycoprotein receptors
Platycodin D (PD) is one of the major bioactive components of the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and possesses multiple biological and pharmacological properties, such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. However, whether it affects platelet function remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the role of PD in platelet function and thrombus formation.
Platelets were treated with PD followed by measuring platelet aggregation, activation, spreading, clot retraction, expression of glycoprotein receptors. Moreover, mice platelets were treated with PD and infused into wild-type mice for analysis of in vivo hemostasis and arterial thrombosis.
Platycodin D treatment significantly inhibited platelet aggregation in response to collagen, ADP, arachidonic acid and epinephrine, reduced platelet P-selectin expression, integrin αIIbβ3 activation, spreading on fibrinogen as well as clot retraction, accompanied with decreased phosphorylation of Syk and PLCγ2 in collagen-related peptide or thrombin-stimulated platelets. Moreover, PD-treated mice platelets presented significantly impaired in vivo hemostasis and arterial thrombus formation. Interestingly, PD induced internalization of glycoprotein receptors αIIbβ3, GPIbα and GPVI. However, GM6001, cytochalasin D, BAPTA-AM and wortmannin did not prevent PD-induced internalization of receptors.
Our study demonstrates that PD inhibits platelet aggregation, activation and impairs hemostasis and arterial thrombosis, suggesting it might be a potent anti-thrombotic drug.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12967-018-1688-z