3 years ago

A month in a horse’s life: healing process of a fractured third metatarsal bone from medieval Viljandi, Estonia

Eve Rannamäe, Vladimir Andrianov, Eha Järv, Aleksandr Semjonov, Arvi Haak, Juhan Kreem

Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018

Source: International Journal of Paleopathology

Author(s): Eve Rannamäe, Vladimir Andrianov, Eha Järv, Aleksandr Semjonov, Arvi Haak, Juhan Kreem


The remains of a horse’s hind foot – a third metatarsal bone and three phalanges – were found in a presumed waste pit of a prosperous medieval household in Viljandi, Estonia, dated from the second half of the 13th to the beginning of the 15th century. The metatarsal bone had been broken during the horse’s lifetime and showed evidence of partial healing. Using archaeological, zooarchaeological, morphological, microscopic, densitometric and radiographic analyses, we investigated the bones and the healing process in order to understand animal treatment in a medieval urban context. Our results show that the fracture was a complete comminuted fracture that appears to have been closed and stable, caused most probably by a trauma from a strong impact. Based on callus formation and the worn edges of the separated diaphysis, the horse had survived for at least a month and used the injured foot to some extent. We suggest that the horse was treated by splinting the foot and keeping the animal in a standing position during the healing process. Eventually the horse died because of a wound infection, or was killed. The relatively long period of careful treatment indicates the animal’s economic or emotional value.

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