5 years ago

Revisiting venom of the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni: Omics techniques reveal the complete toxin arsenal of a well-studied sea anemone genus

Revisiting venom of the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni: Omics techniques reveal the complete toxin arsenal of a well-studied sea anemone genus
More than a century of research on sea anemone venoms has shown that they contain a diversity of biologically active proteins and peptides. However, recent omics studies have revealed that much of the venom proteome remains unexplored. We used, for the first time, a combination of proteomic and transcriptomic techniques to obtain a holistic overview of the venom arsenal of the well-studied sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni. A purely search-based approach to identify putative toxins in a transcriptome from tentacles regenerating after venom extraction identified 508 unique toxin-like transcripts grouped into 63 families. However, proteomic analysis of venom revealed that 52 of these toxin families are likely false positives. In contrast, the combination of transcriptomic and proteomic data enabled positive identification of 23 families of putative toxins, 12 of which have no homology known proteins or peptides. Our data highlight the importance of using proteomics of milked venom to correctly identify venom proteins/peptides, both known and novel, while minimizing false positive identifications from non-toxin homologues identified in transcriptomes of venom-producing tissues. This work lays the foundation for uncovering the role of individual toxins in sea anemone venom and how they contribute to the envenomation of prey, predators, and competitors. Biological significance Proteomic analysis of milked venom combined with analysis of a tentacle transcriptome revealed the full extent of the venom arsenal of the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni. This combined approach led to the discovery of 12 entirely new families of disulfide-rich peptides and proteins in a genus of anemones that have been studied for over a century.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1874391917302415

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