4 years ago

Catalyst Optimisation for Asymmetric Synthesis by Ligand Chirality Element Addition: A Perspective on Stereochemical Cooperativity

Catalyst Optimisation for Asymmetric Synthesis by Ligand Chirality Element Addition: A Perspective on Stereochemical Cooperativity
Christopher J. Richards, Ross A. Arthurs
The concept of matched and mismatched stereochemical pairings has been utilised extensively in organic synthesis, with the cooperativity resulting from the former enabling many reactions to proceed with high stereoselectivity. This approach was first developed to improve the diastereoselectivity of a reaction by matching the configuration of an enantiopure reagent or catalyst with the configuration of an enantiopure substrate. It has been extended to the asymmetric transformation of prochiral substrates controlled by reagents and catalysts containing two or more stereogenic centres. Matched and mismatched pairings may again be identified, with the former resulting in higher product enantioselectivity. This Minireview examines stereochemical pairings within catalysts generated from the combination of a metal with an enantiopure ligand; specifically examples in which the ligand diastereoisomers examined for cooperativity are formally the result of the addition of a chiral element to an existing enantiopure ligand. Comparison of all three ligands in each of the fifty-six examples examined reveals that, in the majority of cases, the added element of chirality increases and decreases the enantioselectivity with respect to the parent ligand. The iterative application of this effect offers a potentially powerful method for catalyst optimisation for use in asymmetric synthesis. Matched and mismatched: Examination of the results of asymmetric catalysis with metal/ligand complexes reveals that, in the majority of cases, the diastereoisomers arising from chirality element addition to an existing enantiopure ligand result in an increase and decrease in the enantiomeric excess of the product.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201700926

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