3 years ago

Protected Lithium-Metal Anodes in Batteries: From Liquid to Solid

Protected Lithium-Metal Anodes in Batteries: From Liquid to Solid
Ying Zhang, Liangbing Hu, Kun Fu, Emily Hitz, Chunpeng Yang
High-energy lithium-metal batteries are among the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. With a high specific capacity and a low reduction potential, the Li-metal anode has attracted extensive interest for decades. Dendritic Li formation, uncontrolled interfacial reactions, and huge volume effect are major hurdles to the commercial application of Li-metal anodes. Recent studies have shown that the performance and safety of Li-metal anodes can be significantly improved via organic electrolyte modification, Li-metal interface protection, Li-electrode framework design, separator coating, and so on. Superior to the liquid electrolytes, solid-state electrolytes are considered able to inhibit problematic Li dendrites and build safe solid Li-metal batteries. Inspired by the bright prospects of solid Li-metal batteries, increasing efforts have been devoted to overcoming the obstacles of solid Li-metal batteries, such as low ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and Li–electrolyte interfacial problems. Here, the approaches to protect Li-metal anodes from liquid batteries to solid-state batteries are outlined and analyzed in detail. Perspectives regarding the strategies for developing Li-metal anodes are discussed to facilitate the practical application of Li-metal batteries. Lithium-metal batteries are promising candidates for high-energy and cost-effective energy-storage systems. Solving the dendritic problem and interfacial instability of the Li-metal anodes is a prerequisite to their practical utilization. Strategies to protect Li-metal anodes in liquid and solid-state electrolytes, which will facilitate the development safe and high-performance Li-metal batteries, are reviewed.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/adma.201701169

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