3 years ago

Mitogenic stimulation accelerates influenza-induced mortality by increasing susceptibility of alveolar type II cells to infection [Medical Sciences]

Mitogenic stimulation accelerates influenza-induced mortality by increasing susceptibility of alveolar type II cells to infection [Medical Sciences]
John G. Noel, Kara E. Lewnard, Mitchell R. White, Huan Liu, Atsushi Saito, Yasuaki Uehara, Francis X. McCormack, Jason C. Gardner, Nikolaos M. Nikolaidis, Kevan L. Hartshorn, Lori B. Pitstick, Huixing Wu

Development of pneumonia is the most lethal consequence of influenza, increasing mortality more than 50-fold compared with uncomplicated infection. The spread of viral infection from conducting airways to the alveolar epithelium is therefore a pivotal event in influenza pathogenesis. We found that mitogenic stimulation with keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) markedly accelerated mortality after infectious challenge with influenza A virus (IAV). Coadministration of KGF with IAV markedly accelerated the spread of viral infection from the airways to alveoli compared with challenge with IAV alone, based on spatial and temporal analyses of viral nucleoprotein staining of lung tissue sections and dissociated lung cells. To better define the temporal relationship between KGF administration and susceptibility to IAV infection in vivo, we administered KGF 120, 48, 24, and 0 h before intrapulmonary IAV challenge and assessed the percentages of proliferating and IAV-infected, alveolar type II (AECII) cells in dispersed lung cell populations. Peak AECII infectivity coincided with the timing of KGF administration that also induced peak AECII proliferation. AECII from mice that were given intrapulmonary KGF before isolation and then infected with IAV ex vivo exhibited the same temporal pattern of proliferation and infectious susceptibility. KGF-induced increases in mortality, AECII proliferation, and enhanced IAV susceptibility were all reversed by pretreatment of the animals with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin before mitogenic stimulation. Taken together, these data suggest mTOR signaling-dependent, mitogenic conditioning of AECII is a determinant of host susceptibility to infection with IAV.

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