5 years ago

Investigation and Demonstration of Catalyst/Initiator-Driven Selectivity in Thiol-Michael Reactions

Investigation and Demonstration of Catalyst/Initiator-Driven Selectivity in Thiol-Michael Reactions
Raghavendra R. Murthy, Brian H. Northrop, Stephen H. Frayne
Thiol-Michael “click” reactions are essential synthetic tools in the preparation of various materials including polymers, dendrimers, and other macromolecules. Despite increasing efforts to apply thiol-Michael chemistry in a controlled fashion, the selectivity of base- or nucleophile-promoted thiol-Michael reactions in complex mixtures of multiple thiols and/or acceptors remains largely unknown. Herein, we report a thorough fundamental study of the selectivity of thiol-Michael reactions through a series of 270 ternary reactions using 1H NMR spectroscopy to quantify product selectivity. The varying influences of different catalysts/initiators are explored using ternary reactions between two Michael acceptors and a single thiol or between a single Michael acceptor and two thiols using three different catalysts/initiators (triethylamine, DBU, and dimethylphenylphosphine) in chloroform. The results from the ternary reactions provide a platform from which sequential quaternary, one-pot quaternary, and sequential senary thiol-Michael reactions were designed and their selectivities quantified. These results provide insights into the design of selective thiol-Michael reactions that can be used for the synthesis and functionalization of multicomponent polymers and further informs how catalyst/initiator choice influences the reactivity between a given thiol and Michael acceptor.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.7b01200

DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.7b01200

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