Proteomic analysis of <i>Biomphalaria glabrata</i> plasma proteins with binding affinity to those expressed by early developing larval <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i>
by Xiao-Jun Wu, Nathalie Dinguirard, Grzegorz Sabat, Hong-di Lui, Laura Gonzalez, Michael Gehring, Utibe Bickham-Wright, Timothy P. YoshinoInteractions between early developing Schistosoma mansoni larval stages and the hemolymph of its snail intermediate host represent the first molecular encounter with the snail’s immune system. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of this early parasite-host interaction, biotinylated sporocyst tegumental membrane (Mem) proteins and larval transformation proteins (LTP) were affixed to streptavidin-agarose beads and used as affinity matrices to enrich for larval-reactive plasma proteins from susceptible (NMRI) and resistant (BS-90) strains of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Nano-LC/MS-MS proteomic analyses of isolated plasma proteins revealed a diverse array of 94 immune-and nonimmune-related plasma proteins. Included among the immune-related subset were pattern recognition receptors (lectins, LPS-binding protein, thioester-containing proteins-TEPs), stress proteins (HSP60 and 70), adhesion proteins (dermatopontins), metalloproteases (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM), ADAM-related Zn proteinases), cytotoxins (biomphalysin) and a Ca2+-binding protein (neo-calmodulin). Variable immunoglobulin and lectin domain (VIgL) gene family members, including fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs), galectin-related proteins (GREPs) and C-type lectin-related proteins (CREPs), were the most prevalent of larval-reactive immune lectins present in plasma. FREPs were highly represented, although only a subset of FREP subfamilies (FREP 2, 3 and 12) were identified, suggesting potential selectivity in the repertoire of plasma lectins recognizing larval glycoconjugates. Other larval-binding FREP-like and CREP-like proteins possessing a C-terminal fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) or C-type lectin binding domain, respectively, and an Ig-fold domain also were identified as predicted proteins from the B. glabrata genome, although incomplete sequence data precluded their placement into specific FREP/CREP subfamilies. Similarly, a group of FReD-containing proteins (angiopoeitin-4, ficolin-2) that lacked N-terminal Ig-fold(s) were identified as a distinct group of FREP-like proteins, separate from the VIgL lectin family. Finally, differential appearance of GREPs in BS-90 plasma eluates, and others proteins exclusively found in eluates of the NMRI strain, suggested snail strain differences in the expression of select larval-reactive immune proteins. This hypothesis was supported by the finding that differential gene expression of the GREP in BS-90 and ADAM in NMRI snail strains generally correlated with their patterns of protein expression. In summary, this study is the first to provide a global comparative proteomic analysis of constitutively expressed plasma proteins from susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains capable of binding early-expressed larval S. mansoni proteins. Identified proteins, especially those exhibiting differential expression, may play a role in determining immune compatibility in this snail host-parasite system. A complete listing of raw peptide data are available via ProteomeXchange using identifier PXD004942.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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