BIRC6 mediates imatinib resistance independently of Mcl-1
by Denis O. Okumu, Michael P. East, Merlin Levine, Laura E. Herring, Raymond Zhang, Thomas S. K. Gilbert, David W. Litchfield, Yanping Zhang, Lee M. GravesBaculoviral IAP repeat containing 6 (BIRC6) is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), a family of functionally and structurally related proteins that inhibit apoptosis. BIRC6 has been implicated in drug resistance in several different human cancers, however mechanisms regulating BIRC6 have not been extensively explored. Our phosphoproteomic analysis of an imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line (MYL-R) identified increased amounts of a BIRC6 peptide phosphorylated at S480, S482, and S486 compared to imatinib-sensitive CML cells (MYL). Thus we investigated the role of BIRC6 in mediating imatinib resistance and compared it to the well-characterized anti-apoptotic protein, Mcl-1. Both BIRC6 and Mcl-1 were elevated in MYL-R compared to MYL cells. Lentiviral shRNA knockdown of BIRC6 in MYL-R cells increased imatinib-stimulated caspase activation and resulted in a ~20-25-fold increase in imatinib sensitivity, without affecting Mcl-1. Treating MYL-R cells with CDK9 inhibitors decreased BIRC6 mRNA, but not BIRC6 protein levels. By contrast, while CDK9 inhibitors reduced Mcl-1 mRNA and protein, they did not affect imatinib sensitivity. Since the Src family kinase Lyn is highly expressed and active in MYL-R cells, we tested the effects of Lyn inhibition on BIRC6 and Mcl-1. RNAi-mediated knockdown or inhibition of Lyn (dasatinib/ponatinib) reduced BIRC6 protein stability and increased caspase activation. Inhibition of Lyn also increased formation of an N-terminal BIRC6 fragment in parallel with reduced amount of the BIRC6 phosphopeptide, suggesting that Lyn may regulate BIRC6 phosphorylation and stability. In summary, our data show that BIRC6 stability is dependent on Lyn, and that BIRC6 mediates imatinib sensitivity independently of Mcl-1 or CDK9. Hence, BIRC6 may be a novel target for the treatment of drug-resistant CML where Mcl-1 or CDK9 inhibitors have failed.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.
Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.