Antigen-specific immunoglobulin variable region sequencing measures humoral immune response to vaccination in the equine neonate
by Rebecca L. Tallmadge, Steven C. Miller, Stephen A. Parry, Maria Julia B. FelippeThe value of prophylactic neonatal vaccination is challenged by the interference of passively transferred maternal antibodies and immune competence at birth. Taken our previous studies on equine B cell ontogeny, we hypothesized that the equine neonate generates a diverse immunoglobulin repertoire in response to vaccination, independently of circulating maternal antibodies. In this study, equine neonates were vaccinated with 3 doses of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or equine influenza vaccine, and humoral immune responses were assessed using antigen-specific serum antibodies and B cell Ig variable region sequencing. An increase (p<0.0001) in serum KLH-specific IgG level was measured between days 21 and days 28, 35 and 42 in vaccinated foals from non-vaccinated mares. In vaccinated foals from vaccinated mares, serum KLH-specific IgG levels tended to increase at day 42 (p = 0.07). In contrast, serum influenza-specific IgG levels rapidly decreased (p≤0.05) in vaccinated foals from vaccinated mares within the study period. Nevertheless, IGHM and IGHG sequences were detected in KLH- and influenza- sorted B cells of vaccinated foals, independently of maternal vaccination status. Immunoglobulin nucleotide germline identity, IGHV gene usage and CDR length of antigen-specific IGHG sequences in B cells of vaccinated foals revealed a diverse immunoglobulin repertoire with isotype switching that was comparable between groups and to vaccinated mares. The low expression of CD27 memory marker in antigen-specific B cells, and of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon in vitro immunogen stimulation indicated limited lymphocyte population expansion in response to vaccine during the study period.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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