3 years ago

Identification of diverse activating mutations of the RAS-MAPK pathway in histiocytic sarcoma

Identification of diverse activating mutations of the RAS-MAPK pathway in histiocytic sarcoma
Vignesh Shanmugam, Gabriel K. Griffin, Eric D. Jacobsen, Christopher D. M. Fletcher, Lynette M. Sholl, Jason L. Hornick
Recent studies have demonstrated recurrent activating mutations involving the classical MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in a large proportion of histiocytic neoplasms, such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, very little is known about the molecular genetics of histiocytic sarcoma, a rare aggressive malignant neoplasm that shows pathologic characteristics of mature macrophages. Here we report the genomic characteristics of a large cohort of histiocytic sarcomas (n = 28) using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach to identify driver alterations. We identified recurrent mutations involving the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway (MAP2K1, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PTPN11, NF1, CBL) in a majority (57%) of histiocytic sarcoma cases and report a clinical response to a MEK inhibitor (Cobimetinib) in a patient with a NF1-mutated histiocytic sarcoma. A smaller subset of cases (21%) also showed mutations resulting in activation of the PI3K signaling pathway (PTEN, MTOR, PIK3R1, PIK3CA). In addition, the tumor-suppressor gene CDKN2A was the most frequently altered gene (46%). Further, a subset of histiocytic sarcoma cases shows striking molecular genetic similarities to B cell lymphomas, supporting a clonal relationship between B cell neoplasms and a subset of histiocytic sarcomas. These findings support a cooperative role for MAPK, PI3K, and cyclin-CDK4/6-INK4 signaling in the pathogenesis of histiocytic sarcoma and provide a rational basis for targeting these pathways.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41379-018-0200-x

DOI: 10.1038/s41379-018-0200-x

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