Stable giant vortex annuli in microwave-coupled atomic condensates.
Stable self-trapped vortex annuli (VAs) with large values of topological charge S (giant VAs) are not only a subject of fundamental interest, but are also sought for various applications, such as quantum information processing and storage. However, in conventional atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) VAs with S>1 are unstable. Here, we demonstrate that robust self-trapped fundamental solitons (with S=0) and bright VAs (with the stability checked up to S=5), can be created in the free space by means of the local-field effect (the feedback of the BEC on the propagation of electromagnetic waves) in a condensate of two-level atoms coupled by a microwave (MW) field, as well as in a gas of MW-coupled fermions with spin 1/2. The fundamental solitons and VAs remain stable in the presence of an arbitrarily strong repulsive contact interaction (in that case, the solitons are constructed analytically by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation). Under the action of the moderate attractive contact interaction which, by itself, would lead to collapse, the fundamental solitons and VAs exist and are stable, respectively; it is interesting that higher-order VAs are more robust than their lower-order couterparts, on the contrary to what is known in other systems that may support stable self-trapped vortices. Conditions for the experimental realizations of the VAs are discussed.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1610.06709
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