Effects of a magnetic field on vortex states in superfluid $^3$He-B.
Superfluid $^3$He-B possesses three locally stable vortices known as a normal-core vortex ($o$-vortex), an A-phase-core vortex ($v$-vortex), and a double-core vortex ($d$-vortex). In this work, we study the effects of a magnetic field parallel or perpendicular to the vortex axis on these structures by solving the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau equation for two different sets of strong coupling correction. The energies of the $v$- and $d$-vortices have nontrivial dependence on the magnetic field. As a longitudinal magnetic field increases, the $v$-vortex is energetically unstable even for high pressures and the $d$-vortex becomes energetically most stable for all possible range of pressure. For a transverse magnetic field the energy of the $v$-vortex becomes lower than that of the $d$-vortex in the high pressure side. In addition, the orientation of the double cores in the $d$-vortex prefers to be parallel to the magnetic field at low pressures, while the $d$-vortex with the double cores perpendicular to the magnetic field is allowed to continuously deform into the $v$-vortex by increasing the pressure.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1901.02638
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