5 years ago

Ultrafast Hot Carrier Dynamics in GaN and Its Impact on the Efficiency Droop

Ultrafast Hot Carrier Dynamics in GaN and Its Impact on the Efficiency Droop
Vatsal A. Jhalani, Marco Bernardi, Jin-Jian Zhou
GaN is a key material for lighting technology. Yet, the carrier transport and ultrafast dynamics that are central in GaN light-emitting devices are not completely understood. We present first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics in GaN, focusing on electron–phonon (e-ph) scattering and the cooling and nanoscale dynamics of hot carriers. We find that e-ph scattering is significantly faster for holes compared to electrons and that for hot carriers with an initial 0.5–1 eV excess energy, holes take a significantly shorter time (∼0.1 ps) to relax to the band edge compared to electrons, which take ∼1 ps. The asymmetry in the hot carrier dynamics is shown to originate from the valence band degeneracy, the heavier effective mass of holes compared to electrons, and the details of the coupling to different phonon modes in the valence and conduction bands. We show that the slow cooling of hot electrons and their long ballistic mean free paths (over 3 nm at room temperature) are a possible cause of efficiency droop in GaN light-emitting diodes. Taken together, our work sheds light on the ultrafast dynamics of hot carriers in GaN and the nanoscale origin of efficiency droop.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02212

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02212

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