5 years ago

A high-performance sodium-ion battery enhanced by macadamia shell derived hard carbon anode

A high-performance sodium-ion battery enhanced by macadamia shell derived hard carbon anode
Hard carbon anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIB) have usually been tested in half-cells by cycling between 0–2V, and is believed to exhibit low rate capability. However, we find that the specific capacity, the rate performance, and the cycling performance may all be severely underestimated with the traditional half-cell cycling evaluation method, due to premature truncation of part II of the capacity (part I is “sloping”, part II is “plateauing”, while part III is Na metal deposition). Here we introduce a sodium-matched SIB full-cell architecture, with newly developed hard carbon derived from macadamia shell (MHC) as anode and Na [ Cu 1 / 9 Ni 2 / 9 Fe 1 / 3 Mn 1 / 3 ] O 2 (NCNFM) as the cathode material, with anode/cathode areal capacity ratio of 1.02–1.04. Our carefully balanced full-cells exhibit a cell-level theoretical specific energy of 215Whkg−1 at C/10 and 186Whkg−1 at 1C based on cathode-active and anode-active material weights, and an outstanding capacity retention of 70% after 1300 cycles ( 2000 h ). Traditional half-cell test (THT) of MHC using superabundant Na metal counter electrode shows only 51.7mAhg−1 capacity at 1C, and appears to die in no more than 100h due to low open-circuit voltage slope and large polarization. A revised half-cell test (RHT) which shows much better agreements with full-cell test results, delivers a specific capacity of 314mAhg−1, with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 91.4 % , which is comparable to that of graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries.

Graphical abstract




Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S2211285517304329

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.