3 years ago

Salmonella typhimurium-induced IL-1 release from primary human monocytes requires NLRP3 and can occur in the absence of pyroptosis

Maurizio Vacca, Jack Rivers-Auty, Alessandra Mortellaro, David Brough, Keith Weng Kit Leong, Catherine E. Diamond
Large molecular complexes known as inflammasomes regulate the release of IL-1β from immune cells in response to infection and injury. Salmonella typhimurium infection is reported to activate NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes which are subsequently involved in pyroptosis of the cell and pathogen clearance. However, the response to S. typhimurium in primary human monocytes has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of S. typhimurium on inflammasomes in primary human monocytes. Much of the previous research in the field has been conducted in murine models and human THP-1 cells, which may not reflect the responses of primary human monocytes. Here, we report that inhibiting NLRP3 with the selective inhibitor MCC950, blocked release of IL-1β and the related cytokine IL-1α from primary human monocytes in response to S. typhimurium. Additionally, under these conditions S. typhimurium-induced IL-1 release occurred independently of pyroptosis. We propose that IL-1β release without pyroptosis may occur in early-recruited monocytes to regulate a maximal innate immune response to Salmonella infection, allowing a sustained inflammatory signal. This insight into the mechanisms involved in IL-1 release from primary human monocytes highlights major differences between immune cell types, and the defences they employ during bacterial infection.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-07081-3

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-07081-3

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