5 years ago

Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin mediates translocation of its adenylate cyclase domain [Biochemistry]

Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin mediates translocation of its adenylate cyclase domain [Biochemistry]
Helena Ostolaza, David Gonzalez–Bullon, Cesar Martin, Kepa B. Uribe

Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT or CyaA) plays a crucial role in respiratory tract colonization and virulence of the whooping cough causative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Secreted as soluble protein, it targets myeloid cells expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin and on delivery of its N-terminal adenylate cyclase catalytic domain (AC domain) into the cytosol, generates uncontrolled toxic levels of cAMP that ablates bactericidal capacities of phagocytes. Our study deciphers the fundamentals of the heretofore poorly understood molecular mechanism by which the ACT enzyme domain directly crosses the host cell membrane. By combining molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics techniques, we discover that ACT has intrinsic phospholipase A (PLA) activity, and that such activity determines AC translocation. Moreover, we show that elimination of the ACT–PLA activity abrogates ACT toxicity in macrophages, particularly at toxin concentrations close to biological reality of bacterial infection. Our data support a molecular mechanism in which in situ generation of nonlamellar lysophospholipids by ACT–PLA activity into the cell membrane would form, likely in combination with membrane-interacting ACT segments, a proteolipidic toroidal pore through which AC domain transfer could directly take place. Regulation of ACT–PLA activity thus emerges as novel target for therapeutic control of the disease.

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