4 years ago

Reviving Lithium-Metal Anodes for Next-Generation High-Energy Batteries

Reviving Lithium-Metal Anodes for Next-Generation High-Energy Batteries
Huiqiao Li, Yanpeng Guo, Tianyou Zhai
Lithium-metal batteries (LMBs), as one of the most promising next-generation high-energy-density storage devices, are able to meet the rigid demands of new industries. However, the direct utilization of metallic lithium can induce harsh safety issues, inferior rate and cycle performance, or anode pulverization inside the cells. These drawbacks severely hinder the commercialization of LMBs. Here, an up-to-date review of the behavior of lithium ions upon deposition/dissolution, and the failure mechanisms of lithium-metal anodes is presented. It has been shown that the primary causes consist of the growth of lithium dendrites due to large polarization and a strong electric field at the vicinity of the anode, the hyperactivity of metallic lithium, and hostless infinite volume changes upon cycling. The recent advances in liquid organic electrolyte (LOE) systems through modulating the local current density, anion depletion, lithium flux, the anode–electrolyte interface, or the mechanical strength of the interlayers are highlighted. Concrete strategies including tailoring the anode structures, optimizing the electrolytes, building artificial anode–electrolyte interfaces, and functionalizing the protective interlayers are summarized in detail. Furthermore, the challenges remaining in LOE systems are outlined, and the future perspectives of introducing solid-state electrolytes to radically address safety issues are presented. Dendrite growth, continuous side reactions, and infinite volume changes inside a lithium-metal anode severely hamper its application in high-energy batteries. Concrete failure mechanisms and effective strategies, including lowering the local current density, reducing anion depletion, smoothing interfaces, reshaping the lithium-ion flux, and mechanically blocking dendrites, are comprehensively reviewed.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700007

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