3 years ago

IL-4-secreting eosinophils promote endometrial stromal cell proliferation and prevent Chlamydia-induced upper genital tract damage [Immunology and Inflammation]

IL-4-secreting eosinophils promote endometrial stromal cell proliferation and prevent Chlamydia-induced upper genital tract damage [Immunology and Inflammation]
Thomas L. Cherpes, Stephen D. Pavelko, Andrea Gambotto, Rodolfo D. Vicetti Miguel, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Darlene Dixon, Nirk E. Quispe Calla, Robert A. Foster

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women typically are asymptomatic and do not cause permanent upper genital tract (UGT) damage. Consistent with this presentation, type 2 innate and TH2 adaptive immune responses associated with dampened inflammation and tissue repair are elicited in the UGT of Chlamydia-infected women. Primary C. trachomatis infection of mice also causes no genital pathology, but unlike women, does not generate Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity. Herein, we explored the significance of type 2 innate immunity for restricting UGT tissue damage in Chlamydia-infected mice, and in initial studies intravaginally infected wild-type, IL-10−/−, IL-4−/−, and IL-4Rα−/− mice with low-dose C. trachomatis inoculums. Whereas Chlamydia was comparably cleared in all groups, IL-4−/− and IL-4Rα−/− mice displayed endometrial damage not seen in wild-type or IL-10−/− mice. Congruent with the aberrant tissue repair in mice with deficient IL-4 signaling, we found that IL-4Rα and STAT6 signaling mediated IL-4–induced endometrial stromal cell (ESC) proliferation ex vivo, and that genital administration of an IL-4–expressing adenoviral vector greatly increased in vivo ESC proliferation. Studies with IL-4-IRES-eGFP (4get) reporter mice showed eosinophils were the main IL-4–producing endometrial leukocyte (constitutively and during Chlamydia infection), whereas studies with eosinophil-deficient mice identified this innate immune cell as essential for endometrial repair during Chlamydia infection. Together, our studies reveal IL-4–producing eosinophils stimulate ESC proliferation and prevent Chlamydia-induced endometrial damage. Based on these results, it seems possible that the robust type 2 immunity elicited by Chlamydia infection of human genital tissue may analogously promote repair processes that reduce phenotypic disease expression.

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