Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human serum albumin and its effect on antibodies profile in patients with diabetes mellitus
by Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad, Khursheed AlamBackground
Albumin glycation and subsequent formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlate with diabetes and associated complications.Methods
Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was modified with D-glucose for a 40 day period under sterile conditions at 37°C. Modified samples along with native HSA (unmodified) were analyzed for structural modifications by UV and fluorescence, FTIR, Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and X–ray crystallography. New-Zealand white female rabbits immunized with AGEs, represent auto-antibodies formation as assessed by competitive and direct binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Neo-epitopesagainst In-vitro formed AGEs were characterized in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (n = 50), type 1 (n = 50), gestational diabetes (n = 50) and type 2 with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with eGFR level 60–89 mL/min (n = 50) from serum direct binding ELISA.Results
Glycated-HSA showed amarked increase in hyperchromicity of 65.82%,71.98%, 73.62% and 76.63% at λ280 nm along with anincreasein fluorescence intensity of 65.82%, 71.98%, 73.62% and 76.63% in glycated-HSA compared to native. FTIR results showed theshifting of Amide I peak from 1656 cm_1 to 1659 cm_1 and Amide II peak from 1554 cm_1 to 1564 cm_1 in glycated-HSA, with anew peak appearance of carbonyl group at 1737 cm-1. LCMS chromatogram of glycated-HSA showed thepresence of carboxymethyl lysine (CML) at 279.1 m/z. Immunological analysis showed high antibody titre>1:12,800 in theserum of rabbits immunized with glycated-HSA (modified with 400 mg/dL glucose) and inhibition of 84.65% at anantigen concentration of 20μg/mL. Maximum serum auto-antibody titre was found in T2DM (0.517±0.086), T1DM (0.108±0.092), GDM (0.611±0.041) and T2DM+CKD (0.096±0.25) patients immunized with glycated-HSA (modified with 400 mg/dL glucose).Conclusions
Non-enzymatic glycosylation of HSA manifests immunological complications in diabetes mellitus due to change in its structure that enhances neo-epitopes generation.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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