5 years ago

Continuous Hydrothermal Synthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles: Applications and Future Directions

Continuous Hydrothermal Synthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles: Applications and Future Directions
Neel M. Makwana, Jingyi Zhang, Xiaole Weng, Jawwad A. Darr
Nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the emerging field of nanotechnology. Their unique and tunable size-dependent properties (in the range 1–100 nm) make these materials indispensable in many modern technological applications. In this Review, we summarize the state-of-art in the manufacture and applications of inorganic nanoparticles made using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) processes. First, we introduce ideal requirements of any flow process for nanoceramics production, outline different approaches to CHFS, and introduce the pertinent properties of supercritical water and issues around mixing in flow, to generate nanoparticles. This Review then gives comprehensive coverage of the current application space for CHFS-made nanomaterials including optical, healthcare, electronics (including sensors, information, and communication technologies), catalysis, devices (including energy harvesting/conversion/fuels), and energy storage applications. Thereafter, topics of precursor chemistry and products, as well as materials or structures, are discussed (surface-functionalized hybrids, nanocomposites, nanograined coatings and monoliths, and metal–organic frameworks). Later, this Review focuses on some of the key apparatus innovations in the field, such as in situ flow/rapid heating systems (to investigate kinetics and mechanisms), approaches to high throughput flow syntheses (for nanomaterials discovery), as well as recent developments in scale-up of hydrothermal flow processes. Finally, this Review covers environmental considerations, future directions and capabilities, along with the conclusions and outlook.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00417

DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00417

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