3 years ago

Native Hydrophobic Binding Interactions at the Transition State for Association between the TAZ1 Domain of CBP and the Disordered TAD-STAT2 Are Not a Requirement

Native Hydrophobic Binding Interactions at the Transition State for Association between the TAZ1 Domain of CBP and the Disordered TAD-STAT2 Are Not a Requirement
Ida Lindström, Jakob Dogan
A significant fraction of the eukaryotic proteome consists of proteins that are either partially or completely disordered under native-like conditions. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are common in protein–protein interactions and are involved in numerous cellular processes. Although many proteins have been identified as disordered, much less is known about the binding mechanisms of the coupled binding and folding reactions involving IDPs. Here we have analyzed the rate-limiting transition state for binding between the TAZ1 domain of CREB binding protein and the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of STAT2 (TAD-STAT2) by site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic experiments (Φ-value analysis) and found that the native protein–protein binding interface is not formed at the transition state for binding. Instead, native hydrophobic binding interactions form late, after the rate-limiting barrier has been crossed. The association rate constant in the absence of electrostatic enhancement was determined to be rather high. This is consistent with the Φ-value analysis, which showed that there are few or no obligatory native contacts. Also, linear free energy relationships clearly demonstrate that native interactions are cooperatively formed, a scenario that has usually been observed for proteins that fold according to the so-called nucleation–condensation mechanism. Thus, native hydrophobic binding interactions at the rate-limiting transition state for association between TAD-STAT2 and TAZ1 are not a requirement, which is generally in agreement with previous findings on other IDP systems and might be a common mechanism for IDPs.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00428

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00428

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