3 years ago

The role of conserved surface hydrophobic residues in the carbapenemase activity of the class D β-lactamases

The role of conserved surface hydrophobic residues in the carbapenemase activity of the class D β-lactamases
Marta Toth, Sergei B. Vakulenko, Nichole K. Stewart, Lauren Maltz, Nuno T. Antunes, Clyde A. Smith
Carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) produce resistance to the last-resort carbapenem antibiotics and render these drugs ineffective for the treatment of life-threatening infections. Here, it is shown that among the clinically important CHDLs, OXA-143 produces the highest levels of resistance to carbapenems and has the highest catalytic efficiency against these substrates. Structural data demonstrate that acylated carbapenems entirely fill the active site of CHDLs, leaving no space for water molecules, including the deacylating water. Since the entrance to the active site is obstructed by the acylated antibiotic, the deacylating water molecule must take a different route for entry. It is shown that in OXA-143 the movement of a conserved hydrophobic valine residue on the surface opens a channel to the active site of the enzyme, which would not only allow the exchange of water molecules between the active site and the milieu, but would also create extra space for a water molecule to position itself in the vicinity of the scissile bond of the acyl-enzyme intermediate to perform deacylation. Structural analysis of the OXA-23 carbapenemase shows that in this enzyme movement of the conserved leucine residue, juxtaposed to the valine on the molecular surface, creates a similar channel to the active site. These data strongly suggest that all CHDLs may employ a mechanism whereupon the movement of highly conserved valine or leucine residues would allow a water molecule to access the active site to promote deacylation. It is further demonstrated that the 6α-hydroxyethyl group of the bound carbapenem plays an important role in the stabilization of this channel. The recognition of a universal deacylation mechanism for CHDLs suggests a direction for the future development of inhibitors and novel antibiotics for these enzymes of utmost clinical importance.The crystal structure of the class D carbapenemase OXA-143 from A. baumannii shows that a conserved valine residue on the protein surface controls access of the deacylating water molecule to the active site of the enzyme. Analysis of the structures of other class D carbapenemases implicates movement of juxtaposed surface valine and leucine residues in a universal deacylation mechanism for these enzymes.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1107/S2059798317008671

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.