3 years ago

Antioxidant defense in quiescent cells determines selectivity of electron transport chain inhibition-induced cell death

Antioxidant defense in quiescent cells determines selectivity of electron transport chain inhibition-induced cell death
Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) targeting shows a great promise in cancer therapy. It is particularly effective in tumors with high ETC activity where ETC-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are efficiently induced. Why modern ETC-targeted compounds are tolerated on the organismal level remains unclear. As most somatic cells are in non-proliferative state, the features associated with the ETC in quiescence could account for some of the specificity observed. Here we report that quiescent cells, despite increased utilization of the ETC and enhanced supercomplex assembly, are less susceptible to cell death induced by ETC disruption when glucose is not limiting. Mechanistically, this is mediated by the increased detoxification of ETC-derived ROS by mitochondrial antioxidant defense, principally by the superoxide dismutase 2 – thioredoxin axis. In contrast, under conditions of glucose limitation, cell death is induced preferentially in quiescent cells and is correlated with intracellular ATP depletion but not with ROS. This is related to the inability of quiescent cells to compensate for the lost mitochondrial ATP production by the upregulation of glucose uptake. Hence, elevated ROS, not the loss of mitochondrially-generated ATP, are responsible for cell death induction by ETC disruption in ample nutrients condition, e.g. in well perfused healthy tissues, where antioxidant defense imparts specificity. However, in conditions of limited glucose, e.g. in poorly perfused tumors, ETC disruption causes rapid depletion of cellular ATP, optimizing impact towards tumor-associated dormant cells. In summary, we propose that antioxidant defense in quiescent cells is aided by local glucose limitations to ensure selectivity of ETC inhibition-induced cell death.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0891584917307141

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.