4 years ago

Common general anesthetic propofol impairs kinesin processivity [Pharmacology]

Common general anesthetic propofol impairs kinesin processivity [Pharmacology]
Kellie A. Woll, Erin M. Masucci, Susan P. Gilbert, Stephanie Guzik-Lendrum, Brandon M. Bensel, Roderic G. Eckenhoff

Propofol is the most widely used i.v. general anesthetic to induce and maintain anesthesia. It is now recognized that this small molecule influences ligand-gated channels, including the GABAA receptor and others. Specific propofol binding sites have been mapped using photoaffinity ligands and mutagenesis; however, their precise target interaction profiles fail to provide complete mechanistic underpinnings for the anesthetic state. These results suggest that propofol and other common anesthetics, such as etomidate and ketamine, may target additional protein networks of the CNS to contribute to the desired and undesired anesthesia end points. Some evidence for anesthetic interactions with the cytoskeleton exists, but the molecular motors have received no attention as anesthetic targets. We have recently discovered that propofol inhibits conventional kinesin-1 KIF5B and kinesin-2 KIF3AB and KIF3AC, causing a significant reduction in the distances that these processive kinesins can travel. These microtubule-based motors are highly expressed in the CNS and the major anterograde transporters of cargos, such as mitochondria, synaptic vesicle precursors, neurotransmitter receptors, cell signaling and adhesion molecules, and ciliary intraflagellar transport particles. The single-molecule results presented show that the kinesin processive stepping distance decreases 40–60% with EC50 values <100 nM propofol without an effect on velocity. The lack of a velocity effect suggests that propofol is not binding at the ATP site or allosteric sites that modulate microtubule-activated ATP turnover. Rather, we propose that a transient propofol allosteric site forms when the motor head binds to the microtubule during stepping.

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