A SIV molecular clone that targets the CNS and induces neuroAIDS in rhesus macaques
by Kenta Matsuda, Nadeene E. Riddick, Cheri A. Lee, Sarah B. Puryear, Fan Wu, Bernard A. P. Lafont, Sonya Whitted, Vanessa M. HirschDespite effective control of plasma viremia with the use of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART), minor cognitive and motor disorders (MCMD) persist as a significant clinical problem in HIV-infected patients. Non-human primate models are therefore required to study mechanisms of disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS). We isolated a strain of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), SIVsm804E, which induces neuroAIDS in a high proportion of rhesus macaques and identified enhanced antagonism of the host innate factor BST-2 as an important factor in the macrophage tropism and initial neuro-invasion of this isolate. In the present study, we further developed this model by deriving a molecular clone SIVsm804E-CL757 (CL757). This clone induced neurological disorders in high frequencies but without rapid disease progression and thus is more reflective of the tempo of neuroAIDS in HIV-infection. NeuroAIDS was also induced in macaques co-inoculated with CL757 and the parental AIDS-inducing, but non-neurovirulent SIVsmE543-3 (E543-3). Molecular analysis of macaques infected with CL757 revealed compartmentalization of virus populations between the CNS and the periphery. CL757 exclusively targeted the CNS whereas E543-3 was restricted to the periphery consistent with a role for viral determinants in the mechanisms of neuroinvasion. CL757 would be a useful model to investigate disease progression in the CNS and as a model to study virus reservoirs in the CNS.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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