Arabidopsis glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein LLG1 associates with and modulates FLS2 to regulate innate immunity [Plant Biology]
Plants detect and respond to pathogen invasion with membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate downstream immune responses. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana LORELEI-LIKE GPI-ANCHORED PROTEIN 1 (LLG1), a coreceptor of the receptor-like kinase FERONIA, regulates PRR signaling. In a forward genetic screen for suppressors of enhanced disease resistance 1 (edr1), we identified the point mutation llg1-3, which suppresses edr1 disease resistance but does not affect plant growth and development. The llg1 mutants show enhanced susceptibility to various virulent pathogens, indicating that LLG1 has an important role in plant immunity. LLG1 constitutively associates with the PAMP receptor FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) and the elongation factor-Tu receptor, and forms a complex with BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a ligand-dependent manner, indicating that LLG1 functions as a key component of PAMP-recognition immune complexes. Moreover, LLG1 contributes to accumulation and ligand-induced degradation of FLS2, and is required for downstream innate immunity responses, including ligand-induced phosphorylation of BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE 1 and production of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, our findings reveal that LLG1 associates with PAMP receptors and modulates their function to regulate disease responses. As LLG1 functions as a coreceptor of FERONIA and plays central roles in plant growth and development, our findings indicate that LLG1 participates in separate pathways, and may suggest a potential connection between development and innate immunity in plants.
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