5 years ago

Ligand Strain and Entropic Effects on the Binding of Macrocyclic and Linear Inhibitors: Molecular Modeling of Penicillopepsin Complexes

Ligand Strain and Entropic Effects on the Binding of Macrocyclic and Linear Inhibitors: Molecular Modeling of Penicillopepsin Complexes
Natalia Díaz, Dimas Suárez
Using extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the structure and dynamics of the complexes formed between penicillopepsin and two peptidomimetic inhibitors: a linear compound, isovaleryl(P4)-valine(P3)-asparagine(P2)-leucine(P1)-phosphonate-phenylalanine(P1′), and its macrocylic analog that includes a methylene bridge between the Asn(P2) and Phe(P1′) side chains. The macrocyclic inhibitor, which has a 420-fold stronger affinity than that of the acyclic one, has been considered to lower the entropic penalty for binding. To better understand this binding preference, the solution structure of the inhibitors is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Subsequently, we assess the influence of the enzyme/inhibitor contacts, the enzyme-induced inhibitor strain, the variation of the ligand configurational entropy and the enzyme reorganization by combining molecular-mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann surface area and normal mode calculations with conformational entropy calculations. We find that there is no relevant entropic stabilization on the binding of the cyclic inhibitor with respect to the acyclic analog because the methylene bridge does not reduce appreciably the conformational flexibility of the free inhibitor. The most important factors explaining the stronger affinity of the macrocyclic inhibitor are the conformational filtering and the lower ligand strain induced by the methylene bridge.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.7b00355

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jcim.7b00355

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