Control of Hsp90 chaperone and its clients by N-terminal acetylation and the N-end rule pathway [Biochemistry]
We found that the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is greatly impaired in naa10Δ cells, which lack the NatA Nα-terminal acetylase (Nt-acetylase) and therefore cannot N-terminally acetylate a majority of normally N-terminally acetylated proteins, including Hsp90 and most of its cochaperones. Chk1, a mitotic checkpoint kinase and a client of Hsp90, was degraded relatively slowly in wild-type cells but was rapidly destroyed in naa10Δ cells by the Arg/N-end rule pathway, which recognized a C terminus-proximal degron of Chk1. Diverse proteins (in addition to Chk1) that are shown here to be targeted for degradation by the Arg/N-end rule pathway in naa10Δ cells include Kar4, Tup1, Gpd1, Ste11, and also, remarkably, the main Hsp90 chaperone (Hsc82) itself. Protection of Chk1 by Hsp90 could be overridden not only by ablation of the NatA Nt-acetylase but also by overexpression of the Arg/N-end rule pathway in wild-type cells. Split ubiquitin-binding assays detected interactions between Hsp90 and Chk1 in wild-type cells but not in naa10Δ cells. These and related results revealed a major role of Nt-acetylation in the Hsp90-mediated protein homeostasis, a strong up-regulation of the Arg/N-end rule pathway in the absence of NatA, and showed that a number of Hsp90 clients are previously unknown substrates of the Arg/N-end rule pathway.
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