5 years ago

Three-dimensional stable lithium metal anode with nanoscale lithium islands embedded in ionically conductive solid matrix [Chemistry]

Three-dimensional stable lithium metal anode with nanoscale lithium islands embedded in ionically conductive solid matrix [Chemistry]
Dingchang Lin, Hongbin Yao, Yayuan Liu, Jie Sun, Kai Yan, Yi Cui, Jie Zhao

Rechargeable batteries based on lithium (Li) metal chemistry are attractive for next-generation electrochemical energy storage. Nevertheless, excessive dendrite growth, infinite relative dimension change, severe side reactions, and limited power output severely impede their practical applications. Although exciting progress has been made to solve parts of the above issues, a versatile solution is still absent. Here, a Li-ion conductive framework was developed as a stable “host” and efficient surface protection to address the multifaceted problems, which is a significant step forward compared with previous host concepts. This was fulfilled by reacting overstoichiometry of Li with SiO. The as-formed LixSi–Li2O matrix would not only enable constant electrode-level volume, but also protect the embedded Li from direct exposure to electrolyte. Because uniform Li nucleation and deposition can be fulfilled owing to the high-density active Li domains, the as-obtained nanocomposite electrode exhibits low polarization, stable cycling, and high-power output (up to 10 mA/cm2) even in carbonate electrolytes. The Li–S prototype cells further exhibited highly improved capacity retention under high-power operation (∼600 mAh/g at 6.69 mA/cm2). The all-around improvement on electrochemical performance sheds light on the effectiveness of the design principle for developing safe and stable Li metal anodes.

Publisher URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/18/4613.short

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619489114

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