4 years ago

ROS regulation of axonal mitochondrial transport is mediated by Ca<sup>2+</sup> and JNK in <i>Drosophila</i>

Peter J. Hollenbeck, Pin-Chao Liao, Lauren C. Tandarich

by Pin-Chao Liao, Lauren C. Tandarich, Peter J. Hollenbeck

Mitochondria perform critical functions including aerobic ATP production and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, but are also a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To maintain cellular function and survival in neurons, mitochondria are transported along axons, and accumulate in regions with high demand for their functions. Oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial axonal transport are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, we know little about the connection between these two. Using the Drosophila third instar larval nervous system as the in vivo model, we found that ROS inhibited mitochondrial axonal transport more specifically, primarily due to reduced flux and velocity, but did not affect transport of other organelles. To understand the mechanisms underlying these effects, we examined Ca2+ levels and the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase) pathway, which have been shown to regulate mitochondrial transport and general fast axonal transport, respectively. We found that elevated ROS increased Ca2+ levels, and that experimental reduction of Ca2+ to physiological levels rescued ROS-induced defects in mitochondrial transport in primary neuron cell cultures. In addition, in vivo activation of the JNK pathway reduced mitochondrial flux and velocities, while JNK knockdown partially rescued ROS-induced defects in the anterograde direction. We conclude that ROS have the capacity to regulate mitochondrial traffic, and that Ca2+ and JNK signaling play roles in mediating these effects. In addition to transport defects, ROS produces imbalances in mitochondrial fission-fusion and metabolic state, indicating that mitochondrial transport, fission-fusion steady state, and metabolic state are closely interrelated in the response to ROS.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178105

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.